Former Israeli prime minister Ariel Sharon, one of his nation's most
controversial and iconic leaders for a half-century - on and off the
battlefield - died Saturday at the age of 85, of complications from a
stroke eight years ago.
Sharon's son, Gilad Sharon, said Saturday, "He has gone. He went when he decided to go," the Associated Press reported.
death of Sharon, known by his nickname "Arik" to generations of
Israelis, ends a tumultuous career that spanned the heights and depths
of public life and Israeli history.
Sharon was a military leader who led Israeli troops against Arab
armies in every war from independence in 1948 until his stroke 58 years
later. He was defense minister in 1982, when Israel attacked Lebanon in
an attempt to oust the Palestinian Liberation Organization and reduce
Syria's stranglehold over Lebanon. Sharon was forced to resign after
Lebanese Christian militias sent into the Sabra and Shatilla refugee
camps to weed out the PLO murdered hundreds of Palestinian civilians.
longtime passionate advocate of Israeli settlement of land he helped
conquer from Jordan and Egypt, which Palestinians seek for a state,he
forced Jewish settlers to leave Gaza in 2005, ending 38 years of
"Sharon combined brilliance and colossal
failure" during his long and controversial career, said Edward Walker,
U.S. ambassador to Israel from 1998 to 2000 and former president of the
Middle East Institute, a Washington think tank.
Sharon was not a hero, but a brutal operator who sought for years to
destroy Palestinian Liberation Organization founder Yasser Arafat and
eventually succeeded, said Hanan Ashrawi, a member of the PLO's
executive committee. Arafat died in 2004. The cause of death is
disputed. His wife claims he was poisoned with radioactive polonium by
"To us he represents violence, militarism, preemptive moves,
undermining the political process -- and a long history of pain,"
Sharon had a first, small stroke in December 2005
and was put on blood thinners before experiencing a severe brain
hemorrhage Jan. 4, 2006.
After spending months in the Jerusalem
hospital where he was initially treated, Sharon was transferred to the
long-term care facility in Tel Hashomer, a suburb of Tel Aviv.
hulking man who at times weighed more than 300 pounds, Sharon was a
gigantic presence in Israel. He was dubbed "The Bulldozer" by Israeli
media because of his former policy of clearing Palestinians from
disputed land, his contempt for his critics and his ability to get
After his stroke, Sharon was succeeded as prime
minister by Ehud Olmert, his successor as leader of the centrist Kadima
party. Sharon had rattled Israeli political circles by leaving the
conservative Likud faction to form Kadima - marking one of the many
unexpected twists and turns in his mercurial career.
his final years, had forged a close working relationship with President
George W. Bush, who called Sharon a "man of peace" during a tough
Israeli crackdown on Palestinian militants in 2002.
Michal Peri, a Jewish Jerusalemite, praised Sharon "for changing course" in mid-career.
"He was a fascinating man," Peri, a teacher, said while doing her
pre-sabbath shopping on Friday. "He was a war hero and general who
established settlements but, when he felt it would help the nation,
dismantled the settlements in Gaza. Sharon was a hard-core hawk, yet he
transformed himself and, in the process, the country."
Derfner, a blogger who says Israel must relinquish all land it captured
in war to the Palestinians, said Sharon was "a ruthless warrior and a
gobbler of Palestinian land. Yet the last big thing he did in his career
- remove Israeli settlements from Gaza - was to retreat from the very
land he helped Israel conquer."
The so-called disengagement "was a
wrenching, cataclysmic event for Israel," that might have been repeated
in parts of the West Bank had Sharon not been sidelined by a stroke,
His withdrawal from Gaza and parts of the West Bank
was aimed at creating the outlines of a Palestinian state and improving
security for Israelis tired of decades of conflict.
Palestinians, the unilateral disengagement was less about peace than it
was about ridding Israel of "the security threat and the demographic
threat (Sharon) saw in Gaza," Ashrawi said.
"At the time we said
any kind of withdrawal had to be done as part of negotiations, so there
would be a handover," she said. "But to Sharon everything was
The wisdom of his disengagement policy has proved
unclear, as demonstrated by Israel's periodic skirmishes with
Hamas-backed militants in Gaza and ongoing tensions with Lebanon, from
which Israel withdrew in 2000.
"Clearly this is a man who had second thoughts in the later years of
his life," said Ted Galen Carpenter, a foreign affairs analyst at the
Cato Institute, a libertarian think tank in Washington.
peace process is successful, he will be remembered as an important
catalyst for peace," Carpenter said. "If it's not successful, he'll be
remembered more for the hard-line policies he adopted earlier in his
Born to Russian immigrant parents in a
farming community near Tel Aviv in 1928, Sharon joined the Jewish
underground militia Haganah at age 14 to fight for Israeli independence
from British rule.
He fought in the Arab-Israeli war of 1948-49
and quickly rose to prominence in the new nation's military ranks.
Sharon's career would turn out to be marked by a series of stunning
highs and desperate lows that made him a figure many Israelis either
adored or despised.
Sharon rose to the rank of brigadier general
and commanded a division during the Six-Day War in 1967 in which Israel
captured East Jerusalem, the West Bank, the Golan Heights, the Sinai
Peninsula and Gaza.
Perhaps his greatest military feat came in
1973, when he led a thrust across the Suez Canal that helped turn the
tide of the war in the Middle East. The assault cut off Egypt's 3rd
Army. It also helped forge Sharon's reputation as a war hero after his
head was grazed by a bullet during fierce fighting.
Throughout his career, Sharon accumulated as many accolades for his heroics as controversies for his no-holds-barred leadership.
In 1953, he headed up Unit 101, an Israeli military force charged
with carrying out reprisals for the slayings of an Israeli woman and her
two children by Palestinian militants. His troops blew up more than 40
houses in a West Bank village, killing 69 Arabs, about half of them
women and children. Sharon would contend later that he thought the homes
In 1956, he was rebuked by his superiors after
sending troops on what his commanders later termed an unnecessary and
unplanned battle with Egyptian forces on the Sinai Peninsula.
1982, while serving as defense minister, Sharon masterminded Israel's
invasion of Lebanon. Touted as a lightning strike to drive Palestinian
militants from Israel's northern border, the operation lasted 18 years.
The Lebanon invasion was marked by the massacre of hundreds of
Palestinians in two Beirut refugee camps by Israeli-allied Lebanese
Sharon denied being at fault for the action,
which sullied his name with many Arab leaders, including
then-Palestinian Authority chairman Yasser Arafat, who was ousted from
Lebanon as a result of Israel's invasion. Prime Minister Menachem Begin
forced Sharon to resign after an Israeli tribunal found him indirectly
responsible for the killings - a rebuke that would have ended most
Sharon slowly, methodically
rehabilitated himself. He rejoined the Israeli Cabinet in the early
1990s as housing minister and oversaw the building of dozens of Jewish
settlements in the West Bank and Gaza. The presence of the settlements
in the occupied territories was an issue that became a central dispute
in Israeli-Palestinian peace negotiations.
In 1998, Prime Minister
Benjamin Netanyahu made Sharon foreign minister. The appointment led to
Sharon's election as leader of the conservative Likud Party after
Netanyahu's defeat in the general election in 1999.
collapse of the Camp David peace talks with Palestinians in 2000, Sharon
led an effort to unseat Prime Minister Ehud Barak by charging that
Barak had been ready to trade full Israeli control of Jerusalem for a
peace deal with Palestinian leaders, who wanted to make East Jerusalem
the capital of a future Palestinian state.
Sharon's visit with
hundreds of Israeli riot police to the al-Aqsa mosque compound in East
Jerusalem - also known as the Temple Mount, the holiest site in Judaism -
was condemned by opponents who said he was prompting anger among
Palestinians. But he said it was only right to assert his commitment to
Israeli sovereignty over the site.
Some blamed the act for sparking a Palestinian intifada, or uprising, against Israel.
the 2001 election that followed Sharon enjoyed a landslide victory - at
the age of 73 - having campaigned on a promise to keep Jerusalem united
and bring Israel "security and true peace."
Sharon's years as prime minister exhibited the dual, sometimes
conflicting impulses of his long career. In his first term in office, he
spent much of his time trying to crush the Palestinian uprising. In
2003, he began construction of a security fence separating Israel and
the West Bank.
The fence eventually ended the regular transit of
terrorists that were attacking Israel say supporters. The Palestinians,
who called it a "separation barrier," saw it is an effort to
unilaterally set the borders between Israel and a future Palestinian
On the other hand, in 2005 Sharon withdrew Israeli settlers
from Gaza and parts of the West Bank despite vehement opposition from
many Israelis. The forced withdrawal pitted Israeli security forces
against fierce though non-lethal civil disobedience by Jewish settlers.
November 2005, as a result of dissent within Likud about the Gaza
policy, Sharon left the party and formed Kadima, a more centrist bloc.
Though Sharon was widely criticized during some of the more hard-line
periods of his career, his legacy brought praise from world leaders for
his efforts to seek a lasting peace in the region.
Aaron Miller, a
former U.S. negotiator in Middle East peace talks, said Sharon's
political evolution mirrored that of most Israelis, who had grown weary
of decades of war.
"If you don't want to be too left or too right,
come with me," was Sharon's appeal, said Miller, of the Woodrow Wilson
International Center for Scholars.